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Exploring Armed Groups in Libya: Perspectives on SSR in a Hybrid Environment

Libya’s security sector has become virtually unrecognizable from what it was a decade ago owing to the transformations brought about since the 2011 revolution. This evolution has implications on any attempts to usher in short-term and interim security arrangements as well as longer-term security sector reform (SSR) efforts.

Legislative Guidance Tool for States to Regulate Private Military and Security Companies

The Legislative Guidance Tool offers a blueprint for legislators to create policies and laws which are in line with internationally recognised good practices. It is aimed at parliamentarians and law and policymakers who undertake to develop new or update existing laws for national legislation of the private military and security …

Montreux Document

The Montreux Document reaffirms the existing obligations of States under international law, in particular, international humanitarian law (IHL) and human rights law, relating to the activities of private military and security companies (PMSCs) in situations of armed conflict. The Document also lists good practices to assist States in implementing these obligations. Although …

Regulating the Use of Force by Private Security Providers – A Guidance Tool for States

This Guidance Tool is intended to support States in regulating the use of force by private security providers. The standards, requirements, and good practices contained in this Tool should be incorporated in national legislation, regulations, by-laws, as well as criteria for licensing, authorisation and registration. Additionally, States can use this …

RSF criticizes takeover of Egyptian media outlets by pro-state businessmen

The Paris-based Reporters Without Borders (RSF) has condemned the increasing acquisition of Egypt’s media outlets by businessmen close to the government and intelligence services in a report issued on Tuesday, following the takeover of the privately owned Al-Hayat channel.

Egypt campus: The students versus the regime

In the wake of the 2013 military coup, students affiliated with – and sympathetic to – the Muslim Brotherhood demonstrated in public universities to demand the return of the deposed President Mohamed Morsi. Their demonstrations turned universities into a new battleground between security forces and students as Egypt’s new rulers …