High levels of debt and changing bailout strategies are reshaping the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East and North Africa. Countries exporting hydrocarbons are gaining prominence over the highly indebted nations of Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Tunisia. This is exacerbating the economic marginalization of low- and middle-income countries, forcing them to align geopolitically with ambitious, resource-rich funders, whose overlapping or colliding spheres of influence are fragmenting the region.
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