As Arab revolutions emerged, they created different prospects and possible courses for institutional reform. In spite of direct challenges, these revolutions have opened the door for reform in the security sector in many Arab countries, and in very least allowed a discussion of the problematic areas in this reform process. They have also provided the opportunity to raise serious questions about the role of civil and democratic oversight on security institutions and how to activate it. A genuine interest also appeared in institutional reforms in other sectors such finance, regulations, and revenue-collection.
This paper offers an analytical presentation of a number of research papers that focused on the security sector in Egypt and Yemen, as well as civil and democratic oversight on security institutions in Egypt and Tunisia and reform in the financial, regulatory, and revenue-collection sectors in Morocco and Tunisia.
It stresses that:
- Those involved in the reform of security institutions – when interacting with international experts – should show full structural, historical, and legislative understanding of these institutions in the context of various government systems in the Arab World before starting the reform process.
- The importance of focusing on the consolidation of the concept of civil and democratic oversight over security institutions in the Tunisian context, and working on opening up new horizons for them in the Egyptian context.
- The need to strengthen the process of institutional reform of the financial, regulatory, and revenue collection sectors in a way that takes into account institutional specificity and guarantees justice and transparency.